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Table of Contents

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
A. GNU Free Documentation License
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
B. The Organization of the Screen
B.1 Point
B.2 The Echo Area
B.3 The Mode Line
B.4 The Menu Bar
B.5 Kinds of User Input
B.6 Keys
B.7 Keys and Commands
B.8 Character Set for Text
C. Entering and Exiting Emacs
C.1 Exiting Emacs
D. Basic Editing Commands
D.1 Inserting Text
D.2 Changing the Location of Point
D.3 Erasing Text
D.4 Undoing Changes
D.5 Files
D.6 Help
D.7 Blank Lines
D.8 Continuation Lines
D.9 Cursor Position Information
D.10 Numeric Arguments
D.11 Repeating a Command
E. The Minibuffer
E.1 Minibuffers for File Names
E.2 Editing in the Minibuffer
E.3 Completion
E.3.1 Completion Example
E.3.2 Completion Commands
E.3.3 Strict Completion
E.3.4 Completion Options
E.4 Minibuffer History
E.5 Repeating Minibuffer Commands
F. Running Commands by Name
G. Help
G.1 Help Summary
G.2 Documentation for a Key
G.3 Help by Command or Variable Name
G.4 Apropos
G.5 Keyword Search for Lisp Libraries
G.6 Help for International Language Support
G.7 Help Mode Commands
G.8 Other Help Commands
G.9 Help on Active Text and Tooltips
H. The Mark and the Region
H.1 Setting the Mark
H.2 Transient Mark Mode
H.3 Operating on the Region
H.4 Commands to Mark Textual Objects
H.5 The Mark Ring
H.6 The Global Mark Ring
H.7 Deletion and Killing
H.7.1 Deletion
H.7.2 Killing by Lines
H.7.3 Other Kill Commands
H.8 Yanking
H.8.1 The Kill Ring
H.8.2 Appending Kills
H.8.3 Yanking Earlier Kills
H.9 Accumulating Text
H.10 Rectangles
I. Registers
I.1 Saving Positions in Registers
I.2 Saving Text in Registers
I.3 Saving Rectangles in Registers
I.4 Saving Window Configurations in Registers
I.5 Keeping Numbers in Registers
I.6 Keeping File Names in Registers
I.7 Bookmarks
J. Controlling the Display
J.1 Using Multiple Typefaces
J.2 Font Lock mode
J.3 Highlight Changes Mode
J.4 Interactive Highlighting by Matching
J.5 Trailing Whitespace
J.6 Scrolling
J.7 Horizontal Scrolling
J.8 Follow Mode
J.9 Selective Display
J.10 Optional Mode Line Features
J.11 How Text Is Displayed
J.12 Customization of Display
J.13 Displaying the Cursor
K. Searching and Replacement
K.1 Incremental Search
K.1.1 Slow Terminal Incremental Search
K.2 Nonincremental Search
K.3 Word Search
K.4 Regular Expression Search
K.5 Syntax of Regular Expressions
K.6 Searching and Case
K.7 Replacement Commands
K.7.1 Unconditional Replacement
K.7.2 Regexp Replacement
K.7.3 Replace Commands and Case
K.7.4 Query Replace
K.8 Other Search-and-Loop Commands
L. Commands for Fixing Typos
L.1 Killing Your Mistakes
L.2 Transposing Text
L.3 Case Conversion
L.4 Checking and Correcting Spelling
M. File Handling
M.1 File Names
M.2 Visiting Files
M.3 Saving Files
M.3.1 Backup Files
M.3.1.1 Single or Numbered Backups
M.3.1.2 Automatic Deletion of Backups
M.3.1.3 Copying vs. Renaming
M.3.2 Protection against Simultaneous Editing
M.3.3 Shadowing Files
M.3.4 Updating Time Stamps Automatically
M.4 Reverting a Buffer
M.5 Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters
M.5.1 Auto-Save Files
M.5.2 Controlling Auto-Saving
M.5.3 Recovering Data from Auto-Saves
M.6 File Name Aliases
M.7 Version Control
M.7.1 Introduction to Version Control
M.7.1.1 Supported Version Control Systems
M.7.1.2 Concepts of Version Control
M.7.2 Version Control and the Mode Line
M.7.3 Basic Editing under Version Control
M.7.3.1 Basic Version Control with Locking
M.7.3.2 Basic Version Control without Locking
M.7.3.3 Advanced Control in C-x C-q
M.7.3.4 Features of the Log Entry Buffer
M.7.4 Examining And Comparing Old Versions
M.7.5 The Secondary Commands of VC
M.7.5.1 Registering a File for Version Control
M.7.5.2 VC Status Commands
M.7.5.3 Undoing Version Control Actions
M.7.5.4 Dired under VC
M.7.5.5 VC Dired Commands
M.7.6 Multiple Branches of a File
M.7.6.1 Switching between Branches
M.7.6.2 Creating New Branches
M.7.6.3 Merging Branches
M.7.6.4 Multi-User Branching
M.7.7 Remote Repositories
M.7.7.1 Version Backups
M.7.7.2 Local Version Control
M.7.8 Snapshots
M.7.8.1 Making and Using Snapshots
M.7.8.2 Snapshot Caveats
M.7.9 Miscellaneous Commands and Features of VC
M.7.9.1 Change Logs and VC
M.7.9.2 Renaming VC Work Files and Master Files
M.7.9.3 Inserting Version Control Headers
M.7.10 Customizing VC
M.7.10.1 General Options
M.7.10.2 Options for RCS and SCCS
M.7.10.3 Options specific for CVS
M.8 File Directories
M.9 Comparing Files
M.10 Miscellaneous File Operations
M.11 Accessing Compressed Files
M.12 File Archives
M.13 Remote Files
M.14 Quoted File Names
M.15 File Name Cache
M.16 Convenience Features for Finding Files
N. Using Multiple Buffers
N.1 Creating and Selecting Buffers
N.2 Listing Existing Buffers
N.3 Miscellaneous Buffer Operations
N.4 Killing Buffers
N.5 Operating on Several Buffers
N.6 Indirect Buffers
N.7 Convenience Features and Customization of Buffer Handling
N.7.1 Making Buffer Names Unique
N.7.2 Switching Between Buffers using Substrings
N.7.3 Customizing Buffer Menus
O. Multiple Windows
O.1 Concepts of Emacs Windows
O.2 Splitting Windows
O.3 Using Other Windows
O.4 Displaying in Another Window
O.5 Forcing Display in the Same Window
O.6 Deleting and Rearranging Windows
O.7 Window Handling Convenience Features and Customization
P. Frames and X Windows
P.1 Mouse Commands for Editing
P.2 Secondary Selection
P.3 Using the Clipboard
P.4 Following References with the Mouse
P.5 Mouse Clicks for Menus
P.6 Mode Line Mouse Commands
P.7 Creating Frames
P.8 Frame Commands
P.9 Making and Using a Speedbar Frame
P.10 Multiple Displays
P.11 Special Buffer Frames
P.12 Setting Frame Parameters
P.13 Scroll Bars
P.14 Scrolling With "Wheeled" Mice
P.15 Menu Bars
P.16 Tool Bars
P.17 Using Dialog Boxes
P.18 Tooltips (or "Balloon Help")
P.19 Mouse Avoidance
P.20 Non-Window Terminals
P.21 Using a Mouse in Terminal Emulators
Q. International Character Set Support
Q.1 Introduction to International Character Sets
Q.2 Enabling Multibyte Characters
Q.3 Language Environments
Q.4 Input Methods
Q.5 Selecting an Input Method
Q.6 Unibyte and Multibyte Non-ASCII characters
Q.7 Coding Systems
Q.8 Recognizing Coding Systems
Q.9 Specifying a Coding System
Q.10 Fontsets
Q.11 Defining fontsets
Q.12 Undisplayable Characters
Q.13 Single-byte Character Set Support
R. Major Modes
R.1 How Major Modes are Chosen
S. Indentation
S.1 Indentation Commands and Techniques
S.2 Tab Stops
S.3 Tabs vs. Spaces
T. Commands for Human Languages
T.1 Words
T.2 Sentences
T.3 Paragraphs
T.4 Pages
T.5 Filling Text
T.5.1 Auto Fill Mode
T.5.2 Refill Mode
T.5.3 Explicit Fill Commands
T.5.4 The Fill Prefix
T.5.5 Adaptive Filling
T.6 Case Conversion Commands
T.7 Text Mode
T.8 Outline Mode
T.8.1 Format of Outlines
T.8.2 Outline Motion Commands
T.8.3 Outline Visibility Commands
T.8.4 Viewing One Outline in Multiple Views
T.8.5 Folding Editing
T.9 TeX Mode
T.9.1 TeX Editing Commands
T.9.2 LaTeX Editing Commands
T.9.3 TeX Printing Commands
T.9.4 TeX Mode Miscellany
T.10 Nroff Mode
T.11 Editing Formatted Text
T.11.1 Requesting to Edit Formatted Text
T.11.2 Hard and Soft Newlines
T.11.3 Editing Format Information
T.11.4 Faces in Formatted Text
T.11.5 Colors in Formatted Text
T.11.6 Indentation in Formatted Text
T.11.7 Justification in Formatted Text
T.11.8 Setting Other Text Properties
T.11.9 Forcing Enriched Mode
U. Editing Programs
U.1 Major Modes for Programming Languages
U.2 Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns
U.2.1 Left Margin Convention
U.2.2 Moving by Defuns
U.2.3 Imenu
U.2.4 Which Function Mode
U.3 Indentation for Programs
U.3.1 Basic Program Indentation Commands
U.3.2 Indenting Several Lines
U.3.3 Customizing Lisp Indentation
U.3.4 Commands for C Indentation
U.3.5 Customizing C Indentation
U.4 Commands for Editing with Parentheses
U.4.1 Expressions with Balanced Parentheses
U.4.2 Moving in the Parenthesis Structure
U.4.3 Automatic Display Of Matching Parentheses
U.5 Manipulating Comments
U.5.1 Comment Commands
U.5.2 Multiple Lines of Comments
U.5.3 Options Controlling Comments
U.6 Documentation Lookup
U.6.1 Info Documentation Lookup
U.6.2 Man Page Lookup
U.6.3 Emacs Lisp Documentation Lookup
U.7 Hideshow minor mode
U.8 Completion for Symbol Names
U.9 Glasses minor mode
U.10 Other Features Useful for Editing Programs
U.11 C and Related Modes
U.11.1 C Mode Motion Commands
U.11.2 Electric C Characters
U.11.3 Hungry Delete Feature in C
U.11.4 Other Commands for C Mode
U.11.5 Comments in C Modes
U.12 Fortran Mode
U.12.1 Motion Commands
U.12.2 Fortran Indentation
U.12.2.1 Fortran Indentation and Filling Commands
U.12.2.2 Continuation Lines
U.12.2.3 Line Numbers
U.12.2.4 Syntactic Conventions
U.12.2.5 Variables for Fortran Indentation
U.12.3 Fortran Comments
U.12.4 Fortran Auto Fill Mode
U.12.5 Checking Columns in Fortran
U.12.6 Fortran Keyword Abbrevs
U.13 Asm Mode
V. Compiling and Testing Programs
V.1 Running Compilations under Emacs
V.2 Searching with Grep under Emacs
V.3 Compilation Mode
V.4 Subshells for Compilation
V.5 Running Debuggers Under Emacs
V.5.1 Starting GUD
V.5.2 Debugger Operation
V.5.3 Commands of GUD
V.5.4 GUD Customization
V.5.5 GUD Tooltips
V.6 Executing Lisp Expressions
V.7 Libraries of Lisp Code for Emacs
V.8 Evaluating Emacs-Lisp Expressions
V.9 Lisp Interaction Buffers
V.10 Running an External Lisp
W. Maintaining Programs
W.1 Change Logs
W.2 Tags Tables
W.2.1 Source File Tag Syntax
W.2.2 Creating Tags Tables
W.2.3 Etags Regexps
W.2.4 Selecting a Tags Table
W.2.5 Finding a Tag
W.2.6 Searching and Replacing with Tags Tables
W.2.7 Tags Table Inquiries
W.3 Merging Files with Emerge
W.3.1 Overview of Emerge
W.3.2 Submodes of Emerge
W.3.3 State of a Difference
W.3.4 Merge Commands
W.3.5 Exiting Emerge
W.3.6 Combining the Two Versions
W.3.7 Fine Points of Emerge
X. Abbrevs
X.1 Abbrev Concepts
X.2 Defining Abbrevs
X.3 Controlling Abbrev Expansion
X.4 Examining and Editing Abbrevs
X.5 Saving Abbrevs
X.6 Dynamic Abbrev Expansion
X.7 Customizing Dynamic Abbreviation
Y. Editing Pictures
Y.1 Basic Editing in Picture Mode
Y.2 Controlling Motion after Insert
Y.3 Picture Mode Tabs
Y.4 Picture Mode Rectangle Commands
Z. Sending Mail
Z.1 The Format of the Mail Buffer
Z.2 Mail Header Fields
Z.3 Mail Aliases
Z.4 Mail Mode
Z.4.1 Mail Sending
Z.4.2 Mail Header Editing
Z.4.3 Citing Mail
Z.4.4 Mail Mode Miscellany
Z.5 Mail Amusements
Z.6 Mail-Composition Methods
AA. Reading Mail with Rmail
AA.1 Basic Concepts of Rmail
AA.2 Scrolling Within a Message
AA.3 Moving Among Messages
AA.4 Deleting Messages
AA.5 Rmail Files and Inboxes
AA.6 Multiple Rmail Files
AA.7 Copying Messages Out to Files
AA.8 Labels
AA.9 Rmail Attributes
AA.10 Sending Replies
AA.11 Summaries
AA.11.1 Making Summaries
AA.11.2 Editing in Summaries
AA.12 Sorting the Rmail File
AA.13 Display of Messages
AA.14 Rmail and Coding Systems
AA.15 Editing Within a Message
AA.16 Digest Messages
AA.17 Converting an Rmail File to Inbox Format
AA.18 Reading Rot13 Messages
AA.19 movemail and POP
AB. Dired, the Directory Editor
AB.1 Entering Dired
AB.2 Navigation in the Dired Buffer
AB.3 Deleting Files with Dired
AB.4 Flagging Many Files at Once
AB.5 Visiting Files in Dired
AB.6 Dired Marks vs. Flags
AB.7 Operating on Files
AB.8 Shell Commands in Dired
AB.9 Transforming File Names in Dired
AB.10 File Comparison with Dired
AB.11 Subdirectories in Dired
AB.12 Moving Over Subdirectories
AB.13 Hiding Subdirectories
AB.14 Updating the Dired Buffer
AB.15 Dired and find
AC. The Calendar and the Diary
AC.1 Movement in the Calendar
AC.1.1 Motion by Standard Lengths of Time
AC.1.2 Beginning or End of Week, Month or Year
AC.1.3 Specified Dates
AC.2 Scrolling in the Calendar
AC.3 Counting Days
AC.4 Miscellaneous Calendar Commands
AC.5 LaTeX Calendar
AC.6 Holidays
AC.7 Times of Sunrise and Sunset
AC.8 Phases of the Moon
AC.9 Conversion To and From Other Calendars
AC.9.1 Supported Calendar Systems
AC.9.2 Converting To Other Calendars
AC.9.3 Converting From Other Calendars
AC.9.4 Converting from the Mayan Calendar
AC.10 The Diary
AC.10.1 Commands Displaying Diary Entries
AC.10.2 The Diary File
AC.10.3 Date Formats
AC.10.4 Commands to Add to the Diary
AC.10.5 Special Diary Entries
AC.11 Appointments
AC.12 Daylight Savings Time
AC.13 Summing Time Intervals
AC.14 Gnus
AC.14.1 Gnus Buffers
AC.14.2 When Gnus Starts Up
AC.14.3 Summary of Gnus Commands
AC.15 Running Shell Commands from Emacs
AC.15.1 Single Shell Commands
AC.15.2 Interactive Inferior Shell
AC.15.3 Shell Mode
AC.15.4 Shell Command History
AC.15.4.1 Shell History Ring
AC.15.4.2 Shell History Copying
AC.15.4.3 Shell History References
AC.15.5 Directory Tracking
AC.15.6 Shell Mode Options
AC.15.7 Emacs Terminal Emulator
AC.15.8 Term Mode
AC.15.9 Page-At-A-Time Output
AC.15.10 Remote Host Shell
AC.16 Using Emacs as a Server
AC.17 Invoking emacsclient
AC.18 Hardcopy Output
AC.19 PostScript Hardcopy
AC.20 Variables for PostScript Hardcopy
AC.21 Sorting Text
AC.22 Narrowing
AC.23 Two-Column Editing
AC.24 Editing Binary Files
AC.25 Saving Emacs Sessions
AC.26 Recursive Editing Levels
AC.27 Emulation
AC.28 Hyperlinking and Navigation Features
AC.28.1 Following URLs
AC.28.2 Activating URLs
AC.28.3 Finding Files and URLs at Point
AC.28.4 Finding Function and Variable Definitions
AC.29 Dissociated Press
AC.30 Other Amusements
AD. Customization
AD.1 Minor Modes
AD.2 Variables
AD.2.1 Examining and Setting Variables
AD.2.2 Easy Customization Interface
AD.2.2.1 Customization Groups
AD.2.2.2 Changing an Option
AD.2.2.3 Customizing Faces
AD.2.2.4 Customizing Specific Items
AD.2.3 Hooks
AD.2.4 Local Variables
AD.2.5 Local Variables in Files
AD.3 Keyboard Macros
AD.3.1 Basic Use
AD.3.2 Naming and Saving Keyboard Macros
AD.3.3 Executing Macros with Variations
AD.4 Customizing Key Bindings
AD.4.1 Keymaps
AD.4.2 Prefix Keymaps
AD.4.3 Local Keymaps
AD.4.4 Minibuffer Keymaps
AD.4.5 Changing Key Bindings Interactively
AD.4.6 Rebinding Keys in Your Init File
AD.4.7 Rebinding Function Keys
AD.4.8 Named ASCII Control Characters
AD.4.9 Non-ASCII Characters on the Keyboard
AD.4.10 Rebinding Mouse Buttons
AD.4.11 Disabling Commands
AD.5 Keyboard Translations
AD.6 The Syntax Table
AD.7 The Init File, `~/.emacs'
AD.7.1 Init File Syntax
AD.7.2 Init File Examples
AD.7.3 Terminal-specific Initialization
AD.7.4 How Emacs Finds Your Init File
AD.8 Quitting and Aborting
AD.9 Dealing with Emacs Trouble
AD.9.1 If DEL Fails to Delete
AD.9.2 Recursive Editing Levels
AD.9.3 Garbage on the Screen
AD.9.4 Garbage in the Text
AD.9.5 Spontaneous Entry to Incremental Search
AD.9.6 Running out of Memory
AD.9.7 Recovery After a Crash
AD.9.8 Emergency Escape
AD.9.9 Help for Total Frustration
AD.10 Reporting Bugs
AD.10.1 When Is There a Bug
AD.10.2 Understanding Bug Reporting
AD.10.3 Checklist for Bug Reports
AD.10.4 Sending Patches for GNU Emacs
AD.11 Contributing to Emacs Development
AD.12 How To Get Help with GNU Emacs
AE. Command Line Arguments
AE.1 Action Arguments
AE.2 Initial Options
AE.3 Command Argument Example
AE.4 Resuming Emacs with Arguments
AE.5 Environment Variables
AE.5.1 General Variables
AE.5.2 Miscellaneous Variables
AE.6 Specifying the Display Name
AE.7 Font Specification Options
AE.8 Window Color Options
AE.9 Options for Window Geometry
AE.10 Internal and External Borders
AE.11 Frame Titles
AE.12 Icons
AE.13 X Resources
AE.14 Lucid Menu X Resources
AE.15 LessTif Menu X Resources
AF. Emacs 20 Antinews
AG. Emacs and the Mac OS
AG.1 Keyboard Input on the Mac
AG.2 International Character Set Support on the Mac
AG.3 Environment Variables and Command Line Arguments.
AG.4 Volumes and Directories on the Mac
AG.5 Specifying Fonts on the Mac
AG.6 Mac-Specific Lisp Functions
AH. Emacs and MS-DOS
AH.1 Keyboard and Mouse on MS-DOS
AH.2 Display on MS-DOS
AH.3 File Names on MS-DOS
AH.4 Text Files and Binary Files
AH.5 Printing and MS-DOS
AH.6 International Support on MS-DOS
AH.7 Subprocesses on MS-DOS
AH.8 Subprocesses on Windows 9X/ME and Windows NT/2K
AH.9 Using the System Menu on Windows
The GNU Manifesto
What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix!
Why I Must Write GNU
Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix
How GNU Will Be Available
Why Many Other Programmers Want to Help
How You Can Contribute
Why All Computer Users Will Benefit
Some Easily Rebutted Objections to GNU's Goals
AI. Acknowledgments
Key (Character) Index
Command-Line Options Index
Command and Function Index
Variable Index
Concept Index

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