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See systime.

Unless otherwise noted, all parameters (input,output) are system data structures.

— Function File: **buildssic** (`clst, ulst, olst, ilst, s1, s2, s3, s4, s5, s6, s7, s8`)

Form an arbitrary complex (open or closed loop) system in state-space form from several systems.

buildssiccan easily (despite its cryptic syntax) integrate transfer functions from a complex block diagram into a single system with one call. This function is especially useful for building open loop interconnections for H-infinity and H-2 designs or for closing loops with these controllers.Although this function is general purpose, the use of

sysgroupsysmult,sysconnectand the like is recommended for standard operations since they can handle mixed discrete and continuous systems and also the names of inputs, outputs, and states.The parameters consist of 4 lists that describe the connections outputs and inputs and up to 8 systems

s1–s8. Format of the lists:

clst- connection list, describes the input signal of each system. The maximum number of rows of Clst is equal to the sum of all inputs of s1-s8.
Example:

`[1 2 -1; 2 1 0]`

means that: new input 1 is old input 1 + output 2 - output 1, and new input 2 is old input 2 + output 1. The order of rows is arbitrary.ulst- if not empty the old inputs in vector
ulstwill be appended to the outputs. You need this if you want to “pull out” the input of a system. Elements are input numbers ofs1–s8.olst- output list, specifiy the outputs of the resulting systems. Elements are output numbers of
s1–s8. The numbers are allowed to be negative and may appear in any order. An empty matrix means all outputs.ilst- input list, specifiy the inputs of the resulting systems. Elements are input numbers of
s1–s8. The numbers are allowed to be negative and may appear in any order. An empty matrix means all inputs.Example: Very simple closed loop system.

w e +-----+ u +-----+ --->o--*-->| K |--*-->| G |--*---> y ^ | +-----+ | +-----+ | - | | | | | | +----------------> u | | | | +-------------------------|---> e | | +----------------------------+The closed loop system

GWcan be optained byGW = buildssic([1 2; 2 -1], 2, [1 2 3], 2, G, K);

clst- 1st row: connect input 1 (
G) with output 2 (K).2nd row: connect input 2 (

K) with negative output 1 (G).ulst- Append input of 2 (
K) to the number of outputs.olst- Outputs are output of 1 (
G), 2 (K) and appended output 3 (fromulst).ilst- The only input is 2 (
K).Here is a real example:

+----+ -------------------->| W1 |---> v1 z | +----+ ----|-------------+ | | | +---+ v +----+ *--->| G |--->O--*-->| W2 |---> v2 | +---+ | +----+ | | | v u ymin || GW || vz inftyThe closed loop system

GWfrom [z, u]' to [v1, v2, y]' can be obtained by (all SISO systems):GW = buildssic([1, 4; 2, 4; 3, 1], 3, [2, 3, 5], [3, 4], G, W1, W2, One);where “One” is a unity gain (auxillary) function with order 0. (e.g.

`One = ugain(1);`

)

— Function File: `sys` = **jet707** ()

Creates a linearized state-space model of a Boeing 707-321 aircraft at

v=80 m/s (M= 0.26,Ga0= -3 deg,alpha0= 4 deg,kappa= 50 deg).System inputs: (1) thrust and (2) elevator angle.

System outputs: (1) airspeed and (2) pitch angle.

Reference: R. Brockhaus: Flugregelung (Flight Control), Springer, 1994.

— Function File: **ord2** (`nfreq, damp, gain`)

Creates a continuous 2nd order system with parameters:

Inputs

nfreq- natural frequency [Hz]. (not in rad/s)
damp- damping coefficient
gain- dc-gain This is steady state value only for damp > 0. gain is assumed to be 1.0 if ommitted.

Output

outsys- system data structure has representation with w = 2 * pi * nfreq:
/ \ | / -2w*damp -w \ / w \ | G = | | |, | |, [ 0 gain ], 0 | | \ w 0 / \ 0 / | \ /See alsojet707(MIMO example, Boeing 707-321 aircraft model)

— Function File: **sysadd** (`gsys, hsys`)

returns

sys=gsys+hsys.

- Exits with an error if
gsysandhsysare not compatibly dimensioned.- Prints a warning message is system states have identical names; duplicate names are given a suffix to make them unique.
sysinput/output names are taken fromgsys.________ ----| gsys |--- u | ---------- +| ----- (_)----> y | ________ +| ----| hsys |--- --------

— Function File: `sys` = **sysappend** (`syst, b, c, d, outname, inname, yd`)

appends new inputs and/or outputs to a system

Inputs

syst- system data structure
b- matrix to be appended to sys "B" matrix (empty if none)
c- matrix to be appended to sys "C" matrix (empty if none)
d- revised sys d matrix (can be passed as [] if the revised d is all zeros)
outname- list of names for new outputs
inname- list of names for new inputs
yd- binary vector; yd(ii)=0 indicates a continuous output; yd(ii)=1 indicates a discrete output.

Outputs

sys sys.b := [syst.b , b] sys.c := [syst.c ] [ c ] sys.d := [syst.d | D12 ] [ D21 | D22 ]where D12, D21, and D22 are the appropriate dimensioned blocks of the input parameter

d.

- The leading block D11 of
dis ignored.- If
innameandoutnameare not given as arguments, the new inputs and outputs are be assigned default names.ydis a binary vector of length rows(c) that indicates continuous/sampled outputs. Default value forydis:

sysis continuous or mixedyd=`zeros(1,rows(c))`

sysis discreteyd=`ones(1,rows(c))`

— Function File: `clsys` = **sysconnect** (`sys, out_idx, in_idx, order, tol`)

Close the loop from specified outputs to respective specified inputs

Inputs

sys- System data structure.
out_idxin_idx- Names or indices of signals to connect (see
`sysidx`

). The output specified by out_idx(ii) is connected to the input specified by in_idx(ii).order- logical flag (default = 0)

`0`

- Leave inputs and outputs in their original order.
`1`

- Permute inputs and outputs to the order shown in the diagram below.
tol- Tolerance for singularities in algebraic loops, default: 200
`eps`

.

Outputs

clsys- Resulting closed loop system.

Method

`sysconnect`

internally permutes selected inputs, outputs as shown below, closes the loop, and then permutes inputs and outputs back to their original order-------------------- u_1 ----->| |----> y_1 | sys | old u_2 | | u_2* ---->(+)--->| |----->y_2 (in_idx) ^ -------------------- | (out_idx) | | -------------------------------The input that has the summing junction added to it has an * added to the end of the input name.

— Function File: [`csys`, `acd`, `ccd`] = **syscont** (`sys`)

Extract the purely continuous subsystem of an input system.

Input

sys- system data structure.

Outputs

csys- is the purely continuous input/output connections of
sysacdccd- connections from discrete states to continuous states, discrete states to continuous outputs, respectively.
returns

csysempty if no continuous/continous path exists

— Function File: [`dsys`, `adc`, `cdc`] = **sysdisc** (`sys`)

Input

sys- System data structure.

Outputs

dsys- Purely discrete portion of sys (returned empty if there is no purely discrete path from inputs to outputs).
adccdc- Connections from continuous states to discrete states and discrete. outputs, respectively.

— Function File: `retsys` = **sysdup** (`asys, out_idx, in_idx`)

Duplicate specified input/output connections of a system

Inputs

asys- system data structure
out_idxin_idx- indices or names of desired signals (see
`sigidx`

). duplicates are made of`y(out_idx(ii))`

and`u(in_idx(ii))`

.

Output

retsys- Resulting closed loop system: duplicated i/o names are appended with a
`"+"`

suffix.

Method

`sysdup`

creates copies of selected inputs and outputs as shown below.u1,y1is the set of original inputs/outputs, andu2,y2is the set of duplicated inputs/outputs in the order specified inin_idx,out_idx, respectively____________________ u1 ----->| |----> y1 | asys | u2 ------>| |----->y2 (in_idx) -------------------- (out_idx)

— Function File: `sys` = **sysgroup** (`asys, bsys`)

Combines two systems into a single system.

Inputs

asysbsys- System data structures.

Output

sys- sys = block diag(asys,bsys)
__________________ | ________ | u1 ----->|--> | asys |--->|----> y1 | -------- | | ________ | u2 ----->|--> | bsys |--->|----> y2 | -------- | ------------------ KsysThe function also rearranges the internal state-space realization of

sysso that the continuous states come first and the discrete states come last. If there are duplicate names, the second name has a unique suffix appended on to the end of the name.

— Function File: `sys` = **sysmult** (`Asys, Bsys`)

Compute sys = Asys*Bsys (series connection):

u ---------- ---------- --->| Bsys |---->| Asys |---> ---------- ----------A warning occurs if there is direct feed-through from an input or a continuous state of

Bsys, through a discrete output ofBsys, to a continuous state or output inAsys(system data structure does not recognize discrete inputs).

— Function File: `retsys` = **sysprune** (`asys, out_idx, in_idx`)

Extract specified inputs/outputs from a system

Inputs

asys- system data structure
out_idxin_idx- Indices or signal names of the outputs and inputs to be kept in the returned system; remaining connections are “pruned” off. May select as [] (empty matrix) to specify all outputs/inputs.
retsys = sysprune (Asys, [1:3,4], "u_1"); retsys = sysprune (Asys, {"tx", "ty", "tz"}, 4);

Output

retsys- Resulting system.
____________________ u1 ------->| |----> y1 (in_idx) | Asys | (out_idx) u2 ------->| |----| y2 (deleted)-------------------- (deleted)

— Function File: `pv` = **sysreorder** (`vlen, list`)

Inputs

vlen- Vector length.
list- A subset of
`[1:vlen]`

.

Output

pv- A permutation vector to order elements of
`[1:vlen]`

in`list`

to the end of a vector.Used internally by

`sysconnect`

to permute vector elements to their desired locations.

— Function File: `retsys` = **sysscale** (`sys, outscale, inscale, outname, inname`)

scale inputs/outputs of a system.

Inputs

sys- Structured system.
outscaleinscale- Constant matrices of appropriate dimension.
outnameinname- Lists of strings with the names of respectively outputs and inputs.

OutputIf the input names and output names (each a list of strings) are not given and the scaling matrices are not square, then default names will be given to the inputs and/or outputs.

retsys- resulting open loop system:
----------- ------- ----------- u --->| inscale |--->| sys |--->| outscale |---> y ----------- ------- -----------A warning message is printed if outscale attempts to add continuous system outputs to discrete system outputs; otherwise

ydis set appropriately in the returned value ofsys.

— Function File: `sys` = **syssub** (`Gsys, Hsys`)

Return sys = Gsys - Hsys.

Method

GsysandHsysare connected in parallel. The input vector is connected to both systems; the outputs are subtracted. Returned system names are those ofGsys.+--------+ +--->| Gsys |---+ | +--------+ | | +| u --+ (_)--> y | -| | +--------+ | +--->| Hsys |---+ +--------+

— Function File: **ugain** (`n`)

Creates a system with unity gain, no states. This trivial system is sometimes needed to create arbitrary complex systems from simple systems with

buildssic. Watch out if you are forming sampled systems sinceugaindoes not contain a sampling period.

— Function File: `W` = **wgt1o** (`vl, vh, fc`)

State space description of a first order weighting function.

Weighting function are needed by the H-2/H-infinity design procedure. These function are part of the augmented plant

P(seehinfdemofor an application example).

Inputs

vl- Gain at low frequencies.
vh- Gain at high frequencies.
fc- Corner frequency (in Hz,
notin rad/sec)

Output

W- Weighting function, given in form of a system data structure.

— Function File: `ksys` = **parallel** (`asys, bsys`)

Forms the parallel connection of two systems.

-------------------- | -------- | u ----->|----> | asys |--->|----> y1 | | -------- | | | -------- | |--->|----> | bsys |--->|----> y2 | -------- | -------------------- ksys

— Function File: [`retsys`, `nc`, `no`] = **sysmin** (`sys, flg`)

Returns a minimal (or reduced order) system

Inputs

sys- System data structure
flg- When equal to 0 (default value), returns minimal system, in which state names are lost; when equal to 1, returns system with physical states removed that are either uncontrollable or unobservable (cannot reduce further without discarding physical meaning of states).
Outputs

retsys- Returned system.
nc- Number of controllable states in the returned system.
no- Number of observable states in the returned system.
cflg`is_controllable(retsys)`

.oflg`is_observable(retsys)`

.